Photography And War Memory:  The understanding of war has been influenced by visual representations of conflict millennia before the arrival of Roger Fenton on the Crimean War battlefield.  The camera did, however, undoubtedly become a powerful new media for chronicling war and thus also for influencing historical memory.  Many photojournalists emphasized how the camera was revolutionary in its abilities to capture truth and thus bring back the realities of war.  Cultural historians, however, are more often tempted to shrink the difference between the photographer and the painter, and to describe both as very subjective artists whose work is then interpreted and reinterpreted by various viewers.

This brief exercise aims to focus a discussion about the relationship between photography and war memory by looking in at the history of a few of the most famous war photographs of the twentieth century.  The amount of information I have found for each photo varies considerably.  But browse through several of the web-sites and place each photograph in context.

Who was the photographer?  Who were the various people in the photograph?  Can you place the photo within a story-line that moves beyond the click of the camera?  What was the impact of the photograph at the time?  What is the "afterlife" of the image?  What did the photographer and the subjects of the photo think about the picture?  What happened to them in the days and years after the photo was taken?  How, if at all, did the image itself change their lives?

The Photos:

1)  WAIT FOR ME, DADDY (1940)

Wait For Me Daddy -- Wikipedia:  A brief entry from the on-line encyclopedia.

Iconic Photos -- Wait For Me, Daddy.

Wait For Me Daddy Memorial Sculpture, TripAdvisor:

Michaela Ludwig, "Wait For Me, Daddy," British Columbia Magazine (November 11, 2016).

"New West Celebrates Wait For Me Daddy Milestone," New Westminster Record, October 7, 2015.

"New West Set To Celebrate Wait For Me Daddy Photo's Anniversary," New Westminster Record, August 27, 2015.

Niki Hope, "News Story Of The Year -- Downtown Renaissance," New Westminster Record December 29, 2014.

"That's Me In The Picture: Warren Bernard In Wait For Me Daddy, New Westminster, Canada, 1940," Guardian, November 28, 2014.

"Famous World War Two Becomes War Memorial," Globe And Mail, October 5, 2014.

"Wait For Me Daddy," As It Happens, CBC, October 4, 2014.

  Kirk Williams, "Iconic 'Wait For Me, Daddy' WW II Photo Unveiled As Sculpture," CBC News, October 3, 2014.

Kevin Drews, "New Westminster Monument To Famous War Photo Gets Unveiling," Globe And Mail, October 3, 2014.

  "'Wait For Me, Daddy' Subject Revisits Spot Of Iconic WW II Photo," CBC News, February 19, 2014.

"'Wait For Me, Daddy' Subject Visits Spot Of Iconic WW II Photo," CBC News, February 19, 2014.

  Theresa McManus, "New Westminster Icon Image Moves Closer To Completion," Royal City Record, February 19, 2014.

Theresa McManus, "Artists Named For War Memorial Statue," Royal City Record, July 26, 2013.

"Famed Second World War Photo To Be Set In Bronze By New Westminster, B.C.," Globe And Mail, July 24, 2013.


Raising The Flag On Iwo Jima -- Wikipedia:  An entry from the on-line encyclopedia.

Iwo Jima:  A site dedicated to the Battle of Iwo Jima, with a focus on the flag-raising image and its history.

Colin Dwyer, "Marines Confirm Decades-Old Case Of Mistaken Identity In Iwo Jima Photo," Two-Way, NPR, June 23, 2016.

Dana Farrington, "Marines Investigating Possible Mistaken Identity In Iwo Jima Flag-Raising Photo," Two-Way, NPR, May 3, 2016.

Thom Patterson, "The Inside Story Of The Famous Iwo Jima Photo," CNN, February 24, 2015.

"70 Years Ago: American Flag Raised On Iwo Jima," SF Gate, February 23, 2015.

Ruth Ben-Giat, "Why 70-Year-Old Iwo Jima Photo Became Iconic," CNN, February 22, 2015.

"Video: The Story Behind The Iconic Iwo Jima Photograph," Time (March 22, 2014).

  Jeremy Bender, "69 Years Ago, A Relatively Unknown Photographer Captured The Most Iconic Photo Of World War II," Slate, February 23, 2014.

  Hal Drake, "Flag Raiser's Return To Iwo Jima: 'It All Seems Impossible,'" Stars And Stripes, February 21, 1965.

Richard Goldstein, "Joe Rosenthal, Photographer At Iwo Jima, Dies," New York Times, August 21, 2006.

  "WW II Photographer Rosenthal Dies," BBC News, August 21, 2006.

Adam Bernstein, "Joe Rosenthal; Shot Flag-Raising At Iwo Jima," Washington Post, August 22, 2006.

Flag Raisers:  Brief biographies of the six flag raisers.

  Ira Hayes -- Wikipedia:  An encyclopedia entry about the most famous flag-raiser.

"68th Anniversary Iwo Jima Flag Raising," Indian Country Today, February 21, 2013.

Roy Cook, "Ira Hayes: O'odham USMC Airborne Warrior," California Indian Education.

  Rene Gagnon:  A Wikipedia entry about one of the flag-raisers.

  John Bradley (Iwo Jima):  A Wikipedia entry about one of the flag-raisers.

  Michael Strank:  A Wikipedia entry about one of the flag-raisers.

  Ben Cohen, "Chuck Lindberg, Who Raised Flag At Iwo Jima, Dies," Star Tribune, June 26, 2007.

David Clark Scott, "Alan Wood Dies, Leaves Legacy Of Iwo Jima Flag," Christian Science Monitor, April 27, 2013.

  USMC War Memorial:  A Wikipedia entry on the Marine Memorial inspired by Rosenthal's photo.

Philip French, "Flags Of Our Fathers," Observer, December 24, 2006.

  Peter Bradshaw, "Flags Of Our Fathers," Guardian, December 22, 2006.

  Manohla Dargis, "A Ghastly Confrontation, A Tormented Aftermath," New York Times, October 20, 2006.

"James Bradley," Charlie Rose Show, PBS, June 6, 2000.

  "Mommy Weirdest," New York Magazine.

  Iconic Photos -- 9/11 Firemen.

Robert Hariman and John Louis Lucaites, "Performing Civic Identity: The Iconic Photograph Of The Flag Raising On Iwo Jima," Quarterly Journal Of Speech, 88 (November 2002): 363-92.


  Iconic Photos -- Raising Flag Over The Reichstag.

  Iconic Photos -- The Red Flag Over The Reichstag.

  Iconic Photos -- Three Flags Of Khaldei.

Anne M. Platoff, "Of Tablecloths And Soviet Relics: A Study Of The Banner Of Victory," EScholarship (2013).

Ilyas Omarov, "Soviet Soldiers' Graffiti On Reichstag Open To Public," Astana Times, May 13, 2014.

"Soviet Soldier Pictured In Iconic 1945 Reichstag Photo Dies," Guardian, February 17, 2010.

Jordan Bonfante, "Remembering A Red Flag Day," Time (May 23, 2008).

Michael Sontheimer, "The Art Of Soviet Propaganda: Iconic Red Army Reichstag Photo Faked," Spiegel Online International, May 7, 2008.

"Man Who Raised Soviet Union's Flag Over Berlin In 1945, Dies," Pravda, January 11, 2008.

Douglas Martin, "Yevgeny Khaldei, War Photographer Dies," New York Times, October 9, 1997.

Michael Specter, "The Lens Of The Beholder: 60 Years Of Photographing The Soviet Empire," New York Times, July 4, 1995.

Yevgeni Khaldei, Jewish Virtual Library.

  Yevgeny Khaldei -- Wikipedia:  An encyclopedia entry about the photographer.

"Red Flag Over The Reichstag," Pravda, May 8, 2003.

Mikhail Minin -- Wikipedia:

  Meliton Kantaria -- Wikipedia:

  Reichstag Building -- Wikipedia:


Nathan Lee, "A Dark Glimpse From Eddie Adams's Camera," New York Times, April 9, 2009.

Iconic Photos -- The Execution Of A Vietcong Guerrilla.

"An Unlikely Weapon":  9 minutes of a 2008 feature documentary about photographer Eddie Adams.

Betsy Sharkey, "Movie Review: 'An Unlikely Weapon,'" Los Angeles Times, July 10, 2009.

"The Vietnam War, Through Eddie Adams' Lens," All Things Considered, NPR, March 24, 2009.

Andy Grundberg, "Eddie Adams, Journalist Who Showed Violence Of Vietnam, Dies At 71," New York Times, September 20, 2004.

"Iconic Picture Photographer Dies,"  BBC News, September 20, 2004.

"In Pictures: Eddie Adams,"  BBC News, September 20, 2004.

  "War Photographer Adams Dies At Age 71," All Things Considered, September 19, 2004:  A short audio feature from National Public Radio.

"Photographer Eddie Adams Dies,"  CBS News, September 19, 2004.

  "In Pictures: Vietnam At Peace," BBC News.

"Nguyen Ngoc Loan," Wikipedia.

George Judson, "Stepping Out From The Lens Of History; Frozen Moments Alter Lives Of Subjects Of 2 Famous Photos," New York Times, October 11, 1995.

Angie Lovelace, "Iconic Photos Of The Vietnam War And Their Influence On Collective Memory."

Brady Priest et al., "Three Images: The Effects Of Photojournalism On The Protest Movement During The Vietnam War," AC 400, Middlebury College, Fall 1997.

David D. Perlmutter, "Just How Big Of An Impact Do Pictures Of War Have On Public Opinion," History News Network, February 7, 2005.

5)  KIM PHUC (1972)

  Iconic Photos -- Napalm Attack:

"Vietnam War's 'Napalm Girl' Forty Years On," Al Jazeera English, June 7, 2012:  A very brief video segment on the 40th anniversary of the bombing.

"Documentary Video -- The Napalm Girl": A short but powerful 7-minute video feature.

"Documentary: The Napalm Girl 40 Years Later":

"Return To The Girl In The Picture," 2010.

Cathy Free, "Vietnam War's 'Napalm Girl' Sees Her Scars As 'Beautiful' Following Innovative Burn Treatment: 'I Fought For My Life,'" People (September 22, 2017).

Valerie Fortney, "'The Girl In The Photo' Speaks Out For Refugees, War's Innocent Victims," Calgary Herald, March 21, 2017.

"Vietnam War's 'Napalm Girl' Kim Phuc Has Laser Treatment To Heal Wounds," Guardian, October 26, 2015.

Dario Balca, "'Napalm Girl' Kim Phuc Was 'Saddened' When Facebook Banned Iconic Photo," CTV News, October 23, 2016.

"With 'Napalm Girl,' Facebook Humans (Not Algorithms) Struggle To Be Editor," All Things Considered, NPR, September 10, 2016.

  Zoe Kleinman, "Fury Over Facebook 'Napalm Girl' Censorship," BBC News, September 9, 2016.

Karl Oczkowski, "Kim Phuc: A Story Of Forgiveness," Walleye, September 1, 2016.

Paula Newton and Thom Patterson, "The Girl In The Photo: Kim Phuc's Journey From War To Forgiveness," CNN, August 20, 2015.

Shaye Lynn DiPasquale, "An Interview With Kim Phuc, The Vietnam War's 'Napalm Girl,'" Odyssey (April 26, 2016).

Elizabeth Griffin, "Napalm Girl, Then And Now," Esquire (October 28, 2015).

Nate Jones, "Nick Ut On His 'Napalm Girl' Photograph 42 Years Later: 'Never In My Life Have I Seen What I Saw,'" People (June 8, 2014).

Leslie Scrivener, "Kim Phuc, Hurt By Napalm In The Vietnam War, Meets Her Saviours," Toronto Star, June 9, 2012.

  Igor Solar, "Kim Phuc: 'The Girl In The Picture' Forty Years Later," Digital Journal, June 7, 2012.

"'Napalm Girl': An Iconic Image Of War Turns 40," Weekend Edition Sunday, NPR, June 3, 2012.

"Girl From AP's Vietnam Napalm Photo Finds Peace With Her Role In History," Guardian, June 2, 2012.

"'Napalm Girl' Kim Phuc Survived With Nick Ut's Aid," SF Gate, June 1, 2012.

Ian K. Smith, "South Vietnam, 9 June 1972, Nick Ut," New Statesman (April 1, 2010).

  "Picture Power: Vietnam Napalm Attack," BBC News, May 9, 2005.

Phan Thi Kim Phuc -- Wikipedia

Kim Foundation International:

  Teghan Beaudette, "'Girl In The Picture' Brings Peace Message To Winnipeg," CBC News, September 20, 2013.

  Kathleen Burge, "Girl In Famous Vietnam Photo Talks About Forgiveness," Boston Globe, February 14, 2013.

"The Long Road To Forgiveness," All Things Considered, June 30, 2008.

"Kim Phuc," Woman's Hour, BBC Radio 4, September 12, 2000.

"Kim's Story -- The Road From Vietnam."

  Nick Ut, Wikipedia:

  Gendy Alimurung, "Nick Ut's 'Napalm Girl' Helped End The Vietnam War -- Today In L.A., He's Still Shooting," LA Weekly (July 17, 2014).

  Nick Ut, Exactly 35 Years Later, State Of The Art, June 8, 2007.

Barry Romo, "Kim Phuc Visits With Vietnam Veterans Against The War," Veteran (Spring 1997).

"Haunted Former Soldier Is Forgiven," United Methodist News (February 4, 1997).

Brady Priest et al., "Three Images: The Effects Of Photojournalism On The Protest Movement During The Vietnam War," AC 400, Middlebury College, Fall 1997.

Some Other Iconic War Photos

  Valley Of The Shadow Of Death (1855)

Iconic Photos -- The Valley Of The Shadow Of Death.

Ron Dicker, "'Valley Of The Shadow Of Death,' Famous Early War Photo, A Staged Fake, Investigator Says," Huffington Post, October 1, 2012.

Pamela D. Toler, "In The Valley Of The Shadow Of Death: Roger Fenton's Crimean War Photos," HistoryNet, August 7, 2012.

  Bloody Saturday (1937)

Iconic Photos -- Shanghai Baby.

Bloody Saturday -- Wikipedia.

"The Chinese Baby":

  Warsaw Ghetto  -- See the short report produced by the Holocaust Education And Archive Research Team.

"Boy An Icon For Childhoods Lost In Holocaust," Weekend Edition Saturday, NPR, November 27, 2010.

Iconic Photos -- Warsaw Ghetto Uprising.

  Dresden Destroyed (1945) -- See the brief introduction at Iconic Photos.

  Mussolini's Demise (1945) -- See the brief introduction at Iconic Photos.

  VJ In Times Day Times Square Kiss  -- For a basic overview of the famous Eisenstaedt photo, see Wikipedia.

  Bill Gardner, "Sailor In Iconic WW 2 Kiss Image Dies," Telegraph, March 15, 2014.

Sarah Zhang, "The Unromantic Truth Behind The VJ Day Kiss Photo," Mother Jones (October 10, 2012).

Dominique Mosbergen, "'Kissing Sailor' Photo Depicts 'Sexual Assault, Not Romance,' Says Feminist Website, Blogger," Huffington Post, October 5, 2012.

  Corky Siemaszko, "Edith Shain, Nurse Whose V-J Kiss With Sailor In Times Square Immortalized In Life Photo, Dies At 91," New York Daily News, June 23, 2010.

Andrea Elliott, "V-J Day Is Replayed, But The Lip-Lock's Tamer This Time," New York Times, August 15, 2005.

"A Kiss, A Photo, A Statue And A Memory," All Things Considered, NPR, August 13, 2005.

Iconic Photos -- V-J Day Kiss.

  "Statue Of Famous WW II Kiss Unveiled In Times Square To Celebrate 65th Anniversary Of VJ-Day."

  Korda's Che Guevara  -- For an overview, see Wikipedia.

  Reaching Out (1966)

Kainaz Amaria, "An Iconic 'Life' Image You Must See," Picture Show, NPR, January 27, 2013.

  Thich Quang Duc (1963)  -- See the resources at Iconic Photos: Vietnam War

  Kent State (1970)  -- See the resources at Iconic Photos: Vietnam War.

  Afghan Girl (1985)

Afghan Girl -- Wikipedia.

Cathy Newman, "Afghan Girl: A Life Revealed," National Geographic (April 2002).

"Afghan 'Green-Eyed Girl' On Her Future," BBC News, January 29, 2017.

  Christine Hauser and Ismail Khan, "'Afghan Girl' In 1985 National Geographic Photo Is Arrested In Pakistan," New York Times, October 26, 2016.

  Eun Kyung Kim, "Iconic 'Afghan Girl' Image Was Almost Cut, Photographer Reveals," Today, October 11, 2013.

Kara Cutruzzula, "'Afghan Girl' Photojournalist Steve McCurry Looks Back On His Storied Career," Newsweek (August 30, 2013).

  "Afghan Girl Found After 17 Years," BBC News, March 13, 2002.

Holly Edwards, "Cover To Cover: The Life Cycle Of An Image In Contemporary Visual Culture."

  Muhammad al-Durrah (2000) --  For a very basic introduction, see Wikipedia.

"Boy Becomes Palestinian Martyr," BBC News, October 2, 2000.

Alistair Dawber, "The Killing Of 12-Year-Old Mohammed al-Durrah In Gaza Became The Defining Image Of The Second Intifada; Only Israel Claims It Was All A Fake," Independent, May 21, 2013.

  Ali Gharib, "Press Advocates: Israeli Report On Al-Dura Affair 'Absurd And Unacceptable,'" Daily Beast (May 23, 2013).

"French Court To Rule On Mohammed Al-Durra Case," Lebanon Daily Star, February 28, 2012.

  Toppling Of The Saddam Hussein Statue

  Iconic Photos -- As Saddam Falls.

  Iconic Photos -- Fall Of Saddam.

  "Mission Accomplished."

  Lyndie England At Abu Ghraib -- Not necessarily the "iconic" Abu Ghraib photograph, but certainly one of the most-frequently reproduced.

"Obama Defends Abuse Photos U-Turn," BBC News, May 14, 2009.

Max Gordon, "Abu Ghraib: Postcards From The Edge," Open Democracy, October 14, 2004.


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