North Island College Fall 2015

Meeting Time: M-W: 11:30 am - 12:50 pm

Meeting PlaceDiscovery 203

Instructor: Dan Hinman-Smith

Office: Village G6

Office Hours:  Tues. 10:00 am - 11:20 am, and Thurs. 1:00 - 2:20 pm (or by appointment)

Office Phone:  334-5000, Extension 4024

Home Phone250-336-0238 

Web- Site for Course:  http://www.misterdann.com/contentswarmemory.htm

E-Mail: dan.hinmansmith@nic.bc.ca

Pablo Picasso, "Weeping Woman" (1937)

Leon Trotsky: "You may not be interested in war, but war is interested in you."

Course Description

"Since wars begin in the minds of men," reads the UNESCO charter, "it is in the minds of men that we have to erect the ramparts of peace."  This course explores how humans have struggled to understand, memorialize, and learn from war.  Although the course uses a comparative thematic approach, there is a heavy emphasis upon twentieth-century wars, since this will both provide a focus and allow us to probe the politicized relationship between lived memory and history.  "War," notes the journalist Chris Hedges, "is a force that gives us meaning."  War and Memory aims to use monuments, memorials, museums, myths, paintings, photographs, weapons, flags, cartoons, family stories, novels and movies as sources for thinking about the war in which war is remembered and defined.

Amy Tan:  "Memory feeds imagination."


Tim O’Brien, Things They Carried (New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2012).

Art Spiegelman, Complete Maus (New York: Pantheon, 1997).

Gwynne Dyer, Canada In The Great Power Game, 1914-2014 (Toronto: Random House Canada, 2014).

Tentative Class Schedule

Week 1 (September 9-13)

Orientation For The Week

The focus for this week is to orient students to the course, which is organized around the theme of war and remembrance.  HIS 220 is being offered in both on-line and face-to-face formats this semester, and these two sections will be sharing my public access web-site as the basic resource for the course.  I have listed two different syllabi -- one for the in-class section and the other for distance learners.  But the other parts of the web-site will be used by both classes.

I do not have an interactive discussion feature on my public access site, so will be using the NIC HIS 220 Blackboard site as the place for on-line discussion (you can reach this through your MyNIC page).  The Discussion Forums are meant to facilitate the sharing of ideas and to engage you with your classmates.  I will also invite the face-to-face students to participate in the Blackboard discussions as well.  You should contribute to these each week.

Before the start of each week, you should read the "Orientation For The Week" overview on the Syllabus page.  It will outline your responsibilities for the coming week, including instructions and links for the Discussion Forums and for any required readings.  I will occasionally included some required Listening or Viewing materials.  These resources are meant as substitutes for the in-class presentations, though I will also add some slide shows and outline notes from my face-to-face lectures.  Any materials listed in the Optional Extras are just that -- interesting supplementary materials connected to the topics under consideration for that particular week.

The main assignment for the course is the on-going War and Memory Journal.  This will consist of a series of commentaries upon the curricular materials.  I will provide you with guidance here, though you will have the opportunity to both identify and focus upon some topics of particular interest.  The Journal will be graded at the mid-way point of the semester and at the term's conclusion.  I expect that there will be considerable overlap between the Journal and the Discussion Forum.  You will be encouraged to post Journal entries on the Discussion Forum that you think might interest your classmates.

There are a number of basic steps should you take as you begin this course.  One of those is to begin to familiarize yourself with this web-site and with the structure of the course.  The key sections of the web-site include this Distance Syllabus, the Journal page, and the Discussion Topic page.  I recommend that you also regularly consult the in-class syllabus, since it in many ways parallels our own.

This Distance Syllabus will be filled in as we proceed, though the main readings and mini-assignments are already outlined.  A description of the Journal and the criteria for the Participation Grade are listed at the bottom of this page.

The Journal page includes itemized lists of recommended Journal topics, instructions for the mini-projects (these will be folded into the Journal) and discussion questions for the three core books.  We will discuss each of those books at a specific point in the course (Week 5 for Things They Carried; Week 9 for Maus; and Week 12 for Canada in the Great Power Game).  I strongly recommend that you purchase all three texts soon.

The Discussion Topic Page includes collected resources on chosen topics for class discussion and debate.    In many cases, I provide you with a wide array of sources.  I certainly do not anticipate that you will have the time to read all these materials.  Rather, the expectation is that you devote at least an hour apiece to careful browsing in each of these sections at the appropriate time in the course.  I also would not suggest that the resources I have provided are comprehensive ones.  Please combine the use of these resources with your own independent research.

Another orientation step is to log onto the Blackboard Discussion page.  I have included a link to that from this web-site, but it may be easier to just reach it through logging onto My NIC.  A third step is the completion of the letter of introduction.

If you are ready to move into the course material itself, I suggest that you start to tackle the readings and research associated with Weeks 2 and 3.  This work can then lead to Discussion Forum contributions and Journal entries about September 11th and about Japan and World War II.

Writing Assignment

Write a short letter of introduction.  Who are you?  Where are you from?  What are you interests?  Why are you taking this course?  What are your thoughts on entering the course about the relationships between war, memory, myth and history?  Do you have any questions, concerns, or suggestions as we start the course?  E-mail me this introduction -- it will then become your first Journal entry of the new semester.

Looking Ahead

We begin the course with a case study that is loosely organized around the theme of Ground Zero (a metaphor used both for the epicentre of the September 11th attack and for the Hiroshima bombing).  The focus in Week 2 will be on September 11th and War Memory, though we will also read an article by the American World War II veteran and literary critic Paul Fussell that discusses the attack on Hiroshima.

Walt Whitman:  "Future years will never know the seething hell and the black infernal background . . . and it is best they should not. The real war will never get in the books."

Week 2 (September 14-20): Whose Ground Zero?  -- The United States, Japan And War Memory (I)

Orientation For The Week

I have chosen the September 11, 2001 attacks as a topic for focus for a number of reasons.  Throughout the course, one recurring theme will be the relationship between lived experience and history.  And although most of you were quite young at the time of the attacks, it is a recent enough event that you may later in life be asked to recall your memories of that day.  So one possible entry for the Journal is a contemporary response to that line of questioning.  What do you remember about September 11  and how has your understanding of that day changed?

But you should also move beyond the strictly personal.  The debates about the most appropriate ways in which to memorialize September 11th may help to introduce a number of themes that will be recurring ones throughout the course.  There are many articles about September 11th and commemoration in that Discussion Topic.  You may want to complement these with some attention to the ways in which the importance of September 11th memory is highlighted on this coming 14th anniversary, September 11, 2015, one that comes amidst a developing American Presidential campaign.  Think about issues associated with the memorialization of the World Trade Center and Pentagon attacks.  Note that I have also provided a number of questions for reflection on the Discussion Topic page.

An optional additional exercise is to complete your own design for a memorial to the victims of the World Trade Center attack.  Include a rudimentary architect's sketch and come prepared to explain your ideas.  Write an accompanying 1 or 2-page journal entry that addresses the following questions:  How should September 11, 2001 be memorialized, and why?

I expect you to write at least one Journal entry about September 11th and War Memory.  You should also participate in the Discussion Forum.

Discussion Forum

September 11, 2001 And Collective Memory

Thank God For The Atom Bomb

Reading Assignment

Browse extensively in the Remembering September 11th Discussion Topic

Paul Fussell, “’Thank God For the Atom Bomb,’New Republic (August-September 1981).

Looking Ahead

I recommend that you orient yourself to the basics of the Japan and World War II Memory assignment.  Please ask me questions if you need further clarification about how best to proceed.

Week 3 (September 21-27): Japan And World War II Memory

Orientation For The Week

The Japan and World War Two Memory mini-project is a small research exercise that asks you to investigate how one particular aspect of Japan's World War II history has been remembered, commemorated, downplayed and/or argued over in the decades since 1945.  Our focus will not be upon Japan alone but also on the neighboring Asian nations that were invaded by Japan.  We will explore collective memories but also the complex relationship between those memories and contemporary geopolitics.

Complete the following steps:

1)  Choose a topic from the Japan and World War II Memory Discussion Topic page.

2)  Spend at least 2 hours researching your topic, combining utilization of the resources I have provided with your own supplementary research.

3)  Write a mini-essay of a minimum of 2 pages that summarizes and analyzes your findings.  This mini-essay can then do double-duty both as a Journal entry and as a mini-essay to share with your fellow students on the Blackboard Discussion Forum site.

Discussion Forum

Student Mini-Presentations: Japan and World War II Memory

Reading Assignment

Browse extensively in Discussion Topic: Japan And World War II Memory

Instructor Presentation Materials

Here is a slide show that I used for my in-class presentation on Hiroshima and historical memory.  Although images rather than text is preeminent, I recommend that you view the Powerpoint:  Whose Ground Zero -- Hiroshima And Historical Memory.  The slide show likely will take a minute to open.

Here is the accompanying Outline for the presentation.

Optional Extras

Hiroshima And Nagasaki Discussion Forum


Prime Minister Shinzo Abe at the Yasukuni Shrine

Week 4 (September 28-October 4)

Orientation For The Week

We will soon be concluding the preliminary case study that compares American and Japanese memories of war through a particular focus on the "Ground Zeros" of Hiroshima, Nagasaki and New York City.  The week deliberately is not an intensive one, and is designed to provide you with an opportunity to discuss the Japan and World War II memory mini-assignments; to offer further commentary associated with the Week 2 and Week 3 Readings and Discussion Topics; and to get a start on reading Tim O'Brien's Things They Carried, which will serve as the focus for next week's work.  I have added one new theme for discussion -- the Confederate Flag and American War Memory -- and also would like you to watch Errol Morris's documentary "The Fog of War."

Complete the following steps

1)  Read Tony Horwitz's article

2)  Browse extensively in the Confederate Flag In The News Discussion Topic

3)  Contribute at least one Confederate Flag-related commentary to the Discussion Forum (either Horwitz or the Confederate Flag In The News)

4)  Watch "The Fog Of War"

5)  Engage in general Blackboard Discussion Forum exchanges on the theme of Japan and World War II Memory.

6)  Add comments to Week 2 or Week 3 Discussion Forum and complete earlier Journal entries.

Discussion Forum

"You Wear Your X and I'll Wear Mine": The Confederate Flag and the Burdens of History

Reading Assignment

Tony Horwitz, “A Death For Dixie,” New Yorker (March 18, 1996): 64-77.

Browse extensively in Discussion Topic: Confederate Flag In The News

Listening And Viewing

"The Fog Of War" (Sony Pictures, 107 minutes, 2003):  This documentary focuses on the life and thoughts of Robert McNamara, a controversial American Secretary of Defense during the Vietnam War.  It links World War II, the Cold War and the Vietnam War, and should help to set up the Things They Carried.

Looking Ahead

The focus for next week will be Tim O'Brien's novel Things They Carried.  You should read this collection of stories from cover-to-cover and then offer commentary upon the book both in your Journal and in the Discussion Forum.  The theme for Week 6 will be the recurring monumental motif of the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier.  Each of you will research the history of one of these national monuments and then share your findings with the class.

Lewis Carroll:  "It's a poor sort of memory that only works backward."

Week 5 (October 5-11)

Orientation For The Week

The one responsibility for the week is to read and analyze Tim O'Brien's Things They Carried.  You should write a substantial Journal entry about that book and ideally also contribute shorter remarks about O'Brien and his work to the Discussion Forum.  One Journal approach would be to write an integrated response to the Things They Carried (What did you find most interesting about the book?  How would you make sense of the book as a whole?  What themes stand out as particularly worthy of being highlighted and explored?).  I have listed some Discussion Questions below and in the Journal section of the web-site.  If you prefer to break your Journal entry into different component, a second alternative Journal approach would be to write paragraph answers to a few of the listed questions.

Discussion Forum

Tim O'Brien, Things They Carried

Reading Assignment

Tim O'Brien, Things They Carried

Looking Ahead

The focus for next week will be on the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier mini-research assignment.  Several nations have Tombs of an Unknown Soldier as central war monuments.  I would like each of you to pick a nation and then research the history of the particular monument.  You do not need to begin your research this week but should choose your national case study.

Week 6 (October 12-18)

Orientation For The Week

Many nations honour the tradition of a tomb that contains the remains of an unidentified soldier.  Although this idea pre-dates World War I, it is associated with that war beyond all others.  The small research assignment for this week asks you to research the history of one particular tomb and then write a Journal entry (approximately 2+ pages) about that monument.  The entry, like your Japan and World War II Memory mini-assignment should also be shared with your classmates in the Discussion Forum.  I have a series of questions that may help guide you in your research listed at the top of the assignment instructions (you can access those immediately below or through the Journal section of the web-site).  You do not need to answer each and every one of those questions but they do provide basic orientation.  You should explore not just the origins of the monument but also its history since its dedication.  How has it been folded into national rituals and the national memorial landscape?  What events have happened at or close to the monument and how have different people struggled to make sense of these events?  Have there been particular controversies?  What statements about war, war memory and national sacrifice have been made at or about the monument?  I have provided links to a small handful of relevant web-sites.  I have not provided a comprehensive series of links, however, and expect you to engage in independent research to find all that you can about your particular Tomb of the Unknown Soldier.

Discussion Forum

Student Mini-Assignments: Tomb Of The Unknown Soldier

Week 7 (October 19-25)

Orientation For The Week

We are in the midst of a series of 100-year anniversaries associated with the First World War.  This week we look back at the Great War with an emphasis on how the events of that conflict have been etched onto the public consciousness.  One case study looks in at the famous break in the fighting that happened on the Western Front during war's first winter.  Should the Christmas Truce be seen as an interesting footnote to the history of World War I or an event of more significance?  We then move our focus to today's Turkey.  That often-neglected theatre of the war was the scene for the death of the Ottoman Empire, the Armenian Genocide and the 1915 Allied defeat at Gallipoli.  But it was also the crucible for the birth of the new Turkish Republic and for the development of powerful national mythologies in Australia and New Zealand.  The Australia and Armenia Discussion Forums are thus integrally linked together.  Turkey has been chosen as one case story to assess the layered complexities of war and memory.

Discussion Forum

Christmas Truce

Australia and World War I

Armenia and World War I

Reading Assignment

Browse extensively in Discussion Topic: Christmas Truce

Browse extensively in Discussion Topic: Australia And World War I

Browse extensively in Discussion Topic: Armenia And World War I

Looking Ahead


***First Half Journal Due

Otto Dix, "Flanders"

Pablo Picasso:  "Painting is not done to decorate apartments.  It is an instrument of war." [1944]

Week 8 (October 26-November 1)

Orientation For The Week

The World War II And Historical Memory mini-research project uses the earlier Japan And World War II Memory exercise as a template but expands the theme to World War II as a whole, with a focus on Europe.  I have identified a number of distinct topics associated with individual nations or themes and then found a few news articles exploring how controversies and commemoration issues have continued into the recent past.  Pick one topic from the Discussion Topic listed below and then use the resources I have provided as a starting place.  You are also encouraged to engage in your own independent research as well.  As with the Japan mini-project, your emphasis should not be on re-telling the history of World War II itself but instead exploring how the individuals and groups are still wrestling with the legacies of the war.  How and why has your topic been in the news in recent years?  To what extent, if any, is it associated with contemporary conflict?  What commentary might you offer on any debates?  Can you place the topic within an historical context or use it to explore the broad theme of how the past is remembered?  You should write a Journal entry based upon your research and then post this entry in the Discussion Forum.

Discussion Forum

Student Mini-Presentations: World War II And Historical Memory

Reading Assignment

Browse in Discussion Topic: World War II And Historical Memory

Looking Ahead


Week 9 (November 2-8)

Orientation For The Week

Your responsibility for this week is to read and analyze Art Spiegelman's Complete Maus.  You should write a substantial Journal entry about that book and ideally also contribute shorter remarks about Maus to the Discussion Forum.  As with Things They Carried, I would recommend choosing between an integrated book response and answering a number of the questions listed with my reading guide.  Maus is an interesting memoir about not only Holocaust survival but about the relationships between the generations and the burdens of the past.

Discussion Forum

Art Spiegelman, Complete Maus

Reading Assignment

Art Spiegelman, Complete Maus

Optional Extras

I have posted some author interviews and book reviews at the bottom of the Maus reading guide (located in the Journal section of the web-site).  You may find it helpful to listen to and read a few of these materials.

Looking Ahead


Adolf Eichmann in Jerusalem

Week 10 (November 9-15)

Orientation For The Week

The focus this week is on family memory.  You should write a Journal entry that is somehow connected to the theme of your family and war history.  That entry could be a general summary of different ways in which the history of your family and war has intersected.  It could be a focus on one war.  It could be an entry based upon one family member, alive or dead, or it might be the summary of an interview with a family member.  You are encouraged to share this entry with your classmates on the Discussion Forum page, though there is no need to do so if you prefer to keep your entry private.  I recognize that this mini-project may not work for some of you.  In that case, you are welcome to skip over the assignment.  I have included the instructions I handed out to the face-to-face class for War and Memory.  You need not fit your entry or approach neatly into one of the models outlined in these instructions, though they may prove helpful to you.

Discussion Forum

War And Family Memory

Week 11 (November 16-22)

Orientation For The Week

The theme for the week is War and Photography.  The sub-theme is how have those images shaped the collective memory of war.  I have chosen five famous or "iconic" photos from twentieth-century history.  I have then collected a series of resources that offer information not just about the circumstances behind the photographs but material about the lives of the individuals associated with the image and the history of the image itself.  Browse extensively in the Iconic War Photos Discussion Topic and write both a Journal Entry and a Discussion Forum contribution in response to this reading.

Your other responsibility for this week is to familiarize yourself with the Sites of War Memory project and to begin to outline how you will approach it.  Further comments about the project are outlined in the "Looking Ahead" section listed below.  I would also like to discuss the assignment with each of you individually by e-mail.

Discussion Forum

Iconic War Photos

Reading Assignment

Browse extensively in Discussion Topic: Iconic War Photos

Looking Ahead

There are two major responsibilities remaining in the course in the weeks to come.  One is our study of Canada and War Memory.  We will use Gwynne Dyer's Canada in the Great Power Game, 1914-2014 as our main resource here.

The other responsibility will be completing a significant assignment, the Sites of War Memory project.  This will involve researching 5 or more particular sites (Battlefields, Museums, Monuments) associated with war and its remembrance.  You will be asked to provide a summary of your research findings and analysis for each of these sites.

Although the assignment will be folded into your Journal and not graded separately from the Journal, the project is the largest of the semester and should result in written work of at least half a dozen pages.

A number of pages on the Journal Section of the War and Memory teaching web-site provide orientation for the assignment.

Clicking on the Sites of War Memory assignment ( http://www.misterdann.com/memoryassites.htm   ) provides access to instructions for the assignment and a long, alphabetically-organized list of some possible sites.  Note that while I provide a link or two here to identify the site, this is a project that will be dependent upon your independent research.  You should try to find a minimum of 5 sources for each of your sites and also should include a bibliography with the assignment.

There is also a downloadable template (Sites of War Memory Template) on the Journal page.  You should download a copy of the template and then fill out the boxes for each of your chosen sites.

It is not mandatory that you choose a given theme or themes that link your different selections.  I strongly recommend that you consider that approach, however, since I think it will provide more meaning to the exercise and facilitate comparative analysis.  I thus have listed some Possible Themes and some of the Sites of War Memory that fit within each theme ( http://www.misterdann.com/memoryasthemesforsites.htm    ).  See if there is one or two of these that seem interesting to you.

You are not restricted to the themes or indeed the sites that I have provided.

I think that the Sites of War Memory Assignment is a very worthwhile exercise but one that will take some planning ahead.  Deciding upon your topic and your approach will frame the assignment.  I would like you to take on these preliminary tasks in a serious way this week.

Week 12 (November 23-29)

Orientation For The Week

This is a week devoted to looking backwards and looking ahead.

In regards to the latter, it is a time for returning to earlier course topics and completing both entries and Discussion Forum contributions associated with these.

In terms of looking ahead, there are two main responsibilities this week:

1)  Refining your approach to the Sites of War Memory assignment and researching individual sites.

2)  Getting started on reading Gwynne Dyer's Canada in the Great Power Game, 1914-2014.

Week 13 (November 30-December 6)

Orientation For The Week

Your main responsibility this week is to read Gwynne Dyer's book, Canada in the Great Power Game, 1914-2014.

Discussion Forum

Canada In The Great Power Game, 1914-2014.  The questions in the Discussion section of the War and Memory web-site are intended to help you to understand the book and to provide possible direction for your Journal entry about the book.  I have also posted a couple of key questions in the Discussion Forum.

Reading Assignment

Gwynne Dyer, Canada In The Great Power Game, 1914-2014

Optional Extras

Browse extensively in We Stand On Guard -- Canada And War Memory and write a journal entry upon anything interesting that you find there.

Looking Ahead

We will be wrapping up the course with the Sites of War Memory assignment.  You should be engaged in research on this.

Week 14 (December 7-13)

Orientation For The Week


Discussion Forum

Sites Of War Memory

Course Wrap-Up

Reading Assignment


Listening And Viewing


Instructor Presentation Materials


Optional Extras


Looking Ahead


Martin Tupper:  "Memory is not wisdom; idiots can by rote repeat volumes.  Yet what is wisdom without memory?"

  **Second Half Journal Due Monday, December 14 (I will happily accept journals through Friday, December 18, but may not have time to write comments upon these late submissions)

Assignments And Evaluation

First-Half Journal                       25%

Second-Half Journal                 25%

Overall Journal                           20%  (Not an extra assignment and typically just the average of the First-Half and Second-Half Journals)             

Class Participation                    30%

Milan Kundera:  "The struggle against power is the struggle of memory over forgetting."

The Journal (70%):

The student journal is the main assignment in this class.  The purpose of the journal is to provide you the opportunity for frequent thoughtful, analytical and personal commentary upon course-related material.  The advantages of the journal, to my mind, are that it breaks work down into regular and manageable chunks, and that it enables you to seize hold of the curriculum in a way which reflects your own interests and style.

The journal will be graded in two installments.  It will be due at the mid-point of the semester.  This installment will count for 25% of the course grade.  The journal will then again be due at the end of the semester.  This installment will include both a 25% grade for the second installment and a 20% grade for the journal in its entirety (most likely an average of the first and second installment grades).

The journal is premised upon the assumption that you will not just be regularly reflecting upon the course material but regularly writing about it as well as part of that reflective practice.  I recommend that you write at least one journal entry per week.  Each journal installment thus might include 7+ entries.  The individual entries can vary in style, format and length.  The Sites of War Memory assignment will not be graded separately but will become be a substantial component in the second-half journal.

 In order to give you a basic structure and to clearly communicate my expectations, I will specify certain mandated entries.  However, you are encouraged to be imaginative in your probing of the complex connections between War, Memory, Myth and History.  Part of the logic of the Journal is that it provides you with some space to pursue topics of particular interest.

The excellent journal will:

¨      be at least 35 pages long.

¨      substantial Sites of War Memory component (8+ pages).

¨      include a Things They Carried Reading Response (2+ pages).

¨      include a Maus Reading Response (2+ pages).

¨      include a Canada In The Great Power Game Reading Response (2+ pages).

¨   include the Letter of Introduction; the September 11, 2001 Memorial and/or commentary; the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier mini-project; the Japan and World War II mini-project; the War and Family Memory mini-project; and the Reflections on War and Memory thought-piece.

¨      include at least 2 Discussion Topic commentaries.

¨      include at least 1 reading response to assigned articles.

¨      demonstrate to the instructor that you are approaching the readings and the course with care and effort.

The above list of entries is meant as a firm guide rather than as an absolutely-everything-here must be completed.  The embedded tension within the assignment between structure and flexibility is deliberate.  Talk to me if you want to make some significant individual adjustments.  Do not hesitate to take risks and to express your own opinions.  Do think critically, though try not to succumb to the temptation to always write easy, stream-of-consciousness entries.  This is an assignment designed to encourage and to reward extensive student effort and learning.  The work-load is heavy but my expectation is that a good-faith approach to the course will lead to strong success.  You can include print-outs from the internet in the journal or quote passages but are expected, of course, to identify that which is not your own original work.  Formal footnoting is not required but plagiarized/cut-and-pasted material will likely lead to a failing grade for the course.  Likewise, you should not recycle any writings from other classes.

Henri Cartier-Bresson, (Seville) Spain, 1933

Helen Keller:  "I do not want the peace that passeth understanding.  I want the understanding that bringeth peace."

Class Participation:

Class discussion through participation in the on-line written discussion forum will be one fundamental component of this course.  The primary purpose of the Discussion Forum is to provide you a place to share your work and ideas with your classmates in an interactive way.  The Discussion Forum is the main section of the NIC Blackboard Site for HIS 220.  I will post specific discussion questions but also want you to initiate group discussion through your own postings of questions, commentaries and mini-assignments.  There will be considerable duplication between the Journal and the Discussion Forum.  Indeed, I will be asking you to share some of your strongest Journal entries with your classmates.  But I hope the Discussion Forum will become a site for engaged written conversation about the curriculum.  I will participate in the Discussion Forum myself and will provide you with feedback as we proceed assessing your performance in this part of the course.  You can link to the Discussion Forum through MyNIC.

W.H. Auden:  "To save your world you asked this man to die.  Would this man, could he see you now, ask why?"





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