Possible Starting Places

  Anthony Coyle, "Where Does The Love And Hate For Christopher Columbus Come From?," National Geographic UK (October 12, 2022).

Columbus Memory In The News

  "Spanish Right Attacks Biden Over Columbus And Conquests," BBC News, October 12, 2021.

"Mexico Promotes Indigenous People As It Erases Memory Of Columbus," France 24, October 12, 2021.

  "Should British Columbia Change Its Name?: As We Reckon With History, Some Say It's Time," CBC News, August 2, 2021.

  "DNA Study Sets Out To Establish True Origins Of Christopher Columbus," Guardian, May 19, 2021.

  Manuel Morales, "Christopher Columbus: A Product Of His Time Or Guilty Of Genocide?," El Pais, November 19, 2018.

German Lopez, "This Columbus Day, A Reminder Christopher Columbus Was 'A Murderous Moron,'" Vox, October 9, 2017.

  William Francis Keegan, "How Columbus, Of All People, Became A National Symbol," Conversation, October 6, 2017.

  William Francis Keegan, "Columbus Day: Black Legend Meets White City," Conversation, October 10, 2016.

  Belen Fernandez, "Christopher Columbus: The Myth That Keeps On Giving," Al Jazeera, October 10, 2016.

  Manuel Ansede, "Saving The Spanish Pigs That Went To The Americas With Columbus," El Pais, August 9, 2016.

"How Christopher Columbus Became A Hate Figure For Many Online," BBC News, October 12, 2015.

  Suemedha Sood, "The Mystery Of Christopher Columbus's Legacy," BBC Travel, November 8, 2012.

  Alejandro D. Zajac, "Christopher Columbus On His Complicated Relationship With Americans," BBC News, October 12, 2011.

  Rory Casrroll, "Columbus Toppled As Indigenous People Rise Up After Five Centuries," Guardian, October 12, 2007.

Giles Tremlett, "Here Lies Christopher Columbus.  And Here, and Here . . .," Guardian, September 10, 2002.

Columbus And Statues

  Eduardo Medina, "Box Covering Columbus Statue In Philadelphia Must Be Removed, Court Rules," New York Times, December 9, 2022.

  "Mexico City To Swap Columbus Statue For One Of Indigenous Woman," BBC News, October 13, 2021.

  David Agren, "Mexico City To Replace Columbus Statue With Pre-Hispanic Sculpture Of Woman," Guardian, October 12, 2021.

  Antonio Ortuno, "Monumental Controversies In Mexico," El Pais, September 18, 2021.

  Johnny Diaz, "Mexico City To Replace Columbus Statue With Indigenous Woman Monument," New York Times, September 7, 2021.

  John Bartlett et al., "Indigenous Americans Demand A Reckoning With Brutal Colony," Guardian, July 27, 2021.

  "Colombian Anti-Government Protesters Topple Columbus Statue," BBC News, June 29, 2021.

  "Mexico Removes Christopher Columbus Statue Before Annual Protest," Al Jazeera, October 12, 2020.

Christine Hauser, "Christopher Columbus Statues Removed From 2 Chicago Parks," New York Times, July 24, 2020.

  "Christopher Columbus Statue Removed In Chicago Following Protests," Guardian, July 24, 2020.

"Christopher Columbus Statues Temporarily Removed In Chicago," BBC News, July 24, 2020.

  "Puerto Rico Looks To Colonial Legacy As Statues Tumble In U.S.," Al Jazeera, July 11, 2020.

  Sam Hitchmough, "Columbus Statues Are Coming Down -- Why He Is So Offensive To Native Americans," Conversation, July 9, 2020.

  Ashifa Kassam, "Spanish Towns Offer New Home For Statues Targeted By Protests In U.S.," Guardian, July 1, 2020.

  Lucia Abellon and Manuel Morales, "Spain Expresses Concern Over Toppling Of Historical Statues In United States," El Pais, June 26, 2020.

  Stephen Burgen, "Columbus Statue Will Stay, But Slavery Tour Aims To Address Barcelona's Past," Guardian, June 19, 2020.

Theresa Machemer, "Christopher Columbus Statues Beheaded, Pulled Down Across America," Smithsonian Smart News, June 12, 2020.

Oliver Milman, "Christopher Columbus Statues Toppled In Virginia And Beheaded In Boston," Guardian, June 11, 2020.

Johnny Diaz, "Christopher Columbus Statues In Boston, Minnesota And Virginia Are Damaged," New York Times, June 10, 2020.

  Philip Williams et al., "As America Grapples With Its History Of Racism, Relics Of The Past Are Being Toppled By A New Generation," ABC News, June 10, 2020.

  "Activists Target Removal Of Statues Including Columbus And King Leopold II," Guardian, June 10, 2020.

  Amy Graff, "San Jose To Remove Christopher Columbus Statue Within 6 Weeks," SF Gate, January 31, 2018.

  William Neuman, "No Traveling For New York's Columbus Statue, Mayor Decides," New York Times, January 12, 2018.

  Joanna Slater, "Killing Christopher Columbus: New York Joins Nationwide Reckoning With Monuments," Globe And Mail, November 20, 2017.

Edward Helmore, "New York Mayor Considers Christopher Columbus Statue Removal," Guardian, August 25, 2017.

  Sam Jones, "Call To Topple Christopher Columbus Statue From Its Barcelona Perch," Guardian, September 27, 2016.

  Anthony Haden-Guest, "Christopher Columbus Statue Welcomed In Puerto Rico After U.S. Cities Rejected It," Guardian, June 19, 2016.

"Italians In Buenos Aires Protest Over Removal Of Columbus Statue," BBC News, June 4, 2013.  (2 mins)

Columbus Day And Indigenous Peoples' Day

Erin Blakemore, "Columbus Day Or Indigenous People's Day?: How The Holiday Has Been Shaped By Oppression," National Geographic (October 2, 2022).

  "Why The U.S. Celebrates Columbus Day," Vox, October 8, 2018.  (6 mins)

  Columbus Day -- Wikipedia:

  Melina Delkic, "Indigenous Peoples' Day, Explained," New York Times, October 9, 2022.

  Amanda Mars, "Why Columbus Day Continues To Lose Ground In The U.S.," El Pais, October 12, 2021.

"Chile President Declares 'State Of Exception' Over Mapuche Conflict," France 24, October 12, 2021.

  Lawrence Torcello, "How Columbus Day Contributes To The Cultural Erasure Of Italian Americans," Conversation, October 11, 2021.

  "In Pictures: Indigenous People Protest On Columbus Day," Al Jazeera, October 13, 2020.

  Aaron Randle, "Indigenous Peoples' Day: The Unofficial, Columbus-Free Celebration," New York Times, October 14, 2019.

  Amandla Thomas-Johnson, "Chile's Indigenous Groups Decry Discrimination On Columbus Day," Al Jazeera, October 13, 2019.

  Malinda Maynor Lowery, "Why More Places Are Abandoning Columbus Day In Favor Of Indigenous Peoples Day," Conversation, October 10, 2019.

  Luke O'Neill, "Goodbye, Columbus: Holiday In Decline As Brutal Legacy Re-Evaluated," Guardian, October 8, 2018.

  German Lopez, "The Biggest U.S. City Named After Christopher Columbus Isn't Celebrating Columbus Day," Vox, October 8, 2018.

  Vera Kern, "Columbus Day: A Controversial Commemoration," DW, October 12, 2017.

  Edward Helmore, "Columbus Day Parade Reopens Statue Debate: 'We Should Not Be Glorifying A Murderer,'" Guardian, October 9, 2017.

  Victoria M. Massie, "Inside The Growing Movement To Ditch Columbus Day And Celebrate Native Americans Instead," Vox, October 10, 2016.

  James Nevins, "Christopher Columbus Was A Lost Sadist, There Shouldn't Be A Holiday In His Name," Guardian, October 12, 2015.

  Tristan Ahtone, "Seattle Swaps Columbus Day For 'Indigenous Peoples' Day,'" Code Switch, NPR, October 12, 2014.

"Chile Indigenous Mapuches Mourn Columbus Day," BBC News, October 11, 2011.

  "Chavez Urges Columbus Day Boycott," Al Jazeera, October 12, 2003.

Berkeley Indigenous Peoples Day -- 30th Annual Celebration, 1992-2022:

  "Today In History -- October 12," Library Of Congress:

"Columbus Day," History.Com, January 4, 2010.

National Day Of Spain

  "Politicians Who Criticize Spain Day Are 'Ignorant' And 'Dunces,' Says PP," El Pais, October 13, 2015.

  Ashifa Kassam, "'Nothing To Celebrate': Leftists In Spain Lash Out At Columbus Day Celebrations," Guardian, October 12, 2015.

"Why Is Dia De La Hispanidad [Spain's National Day] Celebrated On October 12?," Fascinating Spain:

  Tori Sparks, "What Is Dia De La Hispanidad And Why Is It A Holiday?," Metropolitan Barcelona, October 4, 2022.

"National Day Of Spain -- 12th October," Visit Andalucia:

  National Day Of Spain -- Wikipedia:

  "October 12th: Fiesta Nacional, Spain's Controversial National Day," Malaga Guru:

  Jessica Jones, "How Spain Celebrates Its National Day On October 12th," Culture Trip, February 13, 2018.

  Luis F. Dominguez, "Celebrating Dia De La Raza Instead Of Columbus Day," Spanish Academy, September 30, 2021.

Ilan Rachum, "Origins And Historical Significance Of Dia De La Raza," 2004.

A Snapshot In Time: The World Columbian Exposition Of 1893

  People And Events -- World's Columbian Exposition Of 1893 -- The Court Of Honor:  Brief information from a documentary about the history of Chicago.

  World's Columbian Exposition -- Idea, Experience, Aftermath:

  World's Columbian Exposition -- Wikipedia:  An entry from the on-line encyclopedia.

  Wonders Of The 1893 World's Fair:  The companion web-site to a October 25, 2013 to September 7, 2014 Chicago Field Museum exhibit.

  World's Columbian Exposition Of 1893, Paul V. Galvin Library Digital History Collection, Illinois Institute Of Technology;

Official Views Of The World's Columbian Exposition By Arnold And Higinbotham, Project Gutenbergy:

Project Gutenberg E-Book Of Official Views Of The World's Columbian Exposition:  A digital reproduction of a contemporary guide book.

Columbus History In The News

  Elisa Lois, "Tracing Columbus's DNA: Two Exhumations In Spain Seek To Determine The Explorer's Lineage Once And For All," El Pais, November 28, 2022.

  Sam Jones, "Researchers In Galicia Open 15th-Century Tomb To Test Columbus Link Theory," Guardian, November 22, 2022.

  Vicente G. Olaya, "Study Of Christopher Columbus' DNA Set To Reveal His True Origins," El Pais, May 24, 2021.

  "Stolen Christopher Columbus Letter Returned To Spain," BBC News, June 8, 2018.

  Dylan Matthews, "9 Reasons Christopher Columbus Was A Murderer, Tyrant, And Scoundrel," Vox, October 12, 2015.

  "Haiti Shipwreck Is Not Columbus's Santa Maria, Says UNESCO," Guardian, October 6, 2014.

  Ian W. Toll, "The Less Than Heroic Christopher Columbus," New York Times, September 23, 2011.

  Julie Steenhuysen, "Columbus Spread Syphilis, Says New Study," ABC Science, January 15, 2008.

Giles Tremlett, "Lost Document Reveals Columbus As Tyrant Of The Caribbean," Guardian, August 7, 2006.

"'The Last Voyage Of Columbus': An Epic Tale," Weekend Edition Saturday, August 27, 2005.

"Columbus 'Sparked A Genocide,'" BBC News, October 12, 2003.

  "Tug Of War Over Columbus Bell," BBC News, February 17, 2003.

   "Columbus Mystery Unravels," BBC News, September 19, 2002.

Video Sources

  "The Truth About Christopher Columbus," BBC Reel, June 30, 2020.  (7 mins)

  Alex Gendler, "History Vs. Christopher Columbus," TED-Ed.  (6 mins)

Audio Sources

  "Columbus: Hero Or Villain?," Letter From America By Alistair Cooke, BBC Radio 4, October 16, 1992.  (15 mins)


  Erin L. Thompson, "Meet The Indigenous Activist Who Toppled Minnesota's Christopher Columbus Statue," Smithsonian Magazine (February 3, 2022).

Robert Carle, "Remembering Columbus: Blinded By Politics," Academic Questions, 32 (March 2019): 105-113.

  Claudia Rogers, "Christopher Who?," History Today, 67 (August 2017): 38-49.

  Brian Handwerk, "Why Christopher Columbus Was The Perfect Icon For A Nation Looking For A Hero," Smithsonian Magazine (October 9, 2015).

D. Armitage, "Christopher Columbus And The Uses Of History," History Today, 42 (May 1992).

  Fernando Fernandez-Armesto, "Columbus -- Hero Or Villain?," History Today, 42 (May 1992).


web stats