Jon Gurutz Arranz, "Native Americans Adopted Spanish Horses Before Colonization By Other European Powers," El Pais, April 1, 2023.

Vicente G. Olaya, "The Recklessness Of The 'Prudent King' That Shook The World's Largest Empire," El Pais, January 1, 2023.

Anna Lagos, "'The Codex Mendoza Was Used To Legitimize Spanish Conquest Of The Aztecs,'" El Pais, October 15, 2022.

Vicente G. Olyay, "Cabrillo National Monument In California: Spain and Portugal In Face Off Over The Origins Of Explorer," El Pais, July 18, 2022.

  Sam Jones, "'A Francoist Daydream': How Spain's Right Clings To Its Imperialist Past," Observer, December 18, 2021.

  Livia Gershon, "Aztec Altar Secretly Built After The Spanish Conquest Discovered In Mexico City," Smithsonian Smart News, December 7, 2021.

  Nicholas Casey, "In Debate Over Conquistadors 500 Years Ago, Spanish Right Sees An Opportunity," New York Times, October 9, 2021.

  Gracie Anderson, "Who Was La Malinche?," Smithsonian Smart News, July 30, 2021.

  John Bartlett et al., "Indigenous Americans Demand A Reckoning With Brutal Colonial History," Guardian, July 27, 2021.

  Catalina Oquendo, "Why Protesters In Colombia Are Targeting Monuments Of Spanish Conquistadors," El Pais, June 29, 2021.

  Livia Gershon, "After Aztecs Cannibalized Spanish Convoy, Conquistadors Retaliated By Killing Innocents," Smithsonian Smart News, January 21, 2021.

    "Spaniards Killed Women, Kids Over Slaying Of Conquistadores," ABC News, January 18, 2021.

  "Colombia: Indigenous Protesters Topple Conquistador's Statue," BBC News, September 17, 2020.

Abel R. Gomez, "Statues Topple And A Catholic Church Burns As California Reckons With Its Spanish Colonial Past," Conversation, July 24, 2020.

  Claire Bugos, "Aztec Palace And House Built By Hernan Cortes Unearthed In Mexico City," Smithsonian Smart News, July 15, 2020.

  "Ancient Aztec Palace Ruins Discovered In Mexico City," DW, July 14, 2020.

Anagha Srikanth, "Spaniards Offer To Take Statues Of Colonizers Toppled In The United States," The Hill, July 2, 2020.

  Russell Contreras, "Spanish Colonial Monuments Fuel Racial Strife In U.S. Southwest," PBS Newshour, June 30, 2020.

  Lucia Abellan and Manuel Morales, "Spain Expresses Concern Over Toppling Of Historical Statues In United States," El Pais, June 26, 2020.

  Samuel Gilbert, "Protests Target Spanish Colonial Statues That 'Celebrate Genocide' In U.S. West," Guardian, June 24, 2020.

  Kenya Evelyn, "Man Shot As New Mexico Protesters Try To Remove Spanish Conquistador Statue," Guardian, June 16, 2020.

  Simon Romero, "Man Is Shot At Protest Over Statue Of New Mexico's Conquistador," New York Times, June 15, 2020.

  Vicente G. Olaya, "The Catalans Who Conquered California," El Pais, February 24, 2020.

David Agren, "Discovery Of Iron Anchors Raises Hopes Of Finding Hernan Cortes's Ships," Guardian, December 20, 2019.

  "Hernan Cortes: Conquistador Anchors Found Off Mexico Gulf Coast," BBC News, December 18, 2019.

Laurence Blair, "Conquistadors Tumble As Indigenous Chileans Tear Down Statues," Guardian, November 5, 2019.

Kris Lane, "The First Global City," Aeon, July 30, 2019.

  Vicente G. Olaya, "Studies Shed New Light On Origins Of Canary Islands Population," El Pais, June 7, 2019.

  Vicente G. Olaya, "Hollywood's Role In Spreading The Spanish Black Legend," El Pais, May 10, 2019.

Stephen Burgen and David Agren, "Spain Hits Back At Mexico In Row Over Colonial Rights Abuses," Guardian, March 26, 2019.

Charles Kaiser, "'El Norte' Review: An Epic And Timely History Of Hispanic North America," Guardian, March 16, 2019.

Oliver Milman, "European Colonization Of Americas Killed So Many It Cooled Earth's Climate," Guardian, January 31, 2019.

  Sam Jones, "Spain Fights To Dispel Legend Of Inquisition And Imperial Atrocities," Guardian, April 29, 2018.

"500 Years Later, Scientists Discover What Probably Killed The Aztecs," Guardian, January 16, 2018.

  "Armada Sailor Tree Among Northern Ireland's Top Six," BBC News, September 11, 2017.

  Daniel J. Chacon, "Monuments To History -- Or Oppression?," Santa Fe New Mexican, August 19, 2017.

  Theodoros Karasavvas, "Will The Lost Fleet Of Hernan Cortes And Its Treasures Of The Aztecs Finally Be Found?," Ancient Origins, July 17, 2017.

  Natasha Pizzey, "Secret Mexican Diary Sheds Light On Spanish Inquisition," BBC News, June 4, 2017.

"University Of New Mexico Students Denounce Official Seal As Racist," Guardian, April 17, 2016.

"Discovery Of Priest's Grave Sheds Light On First Days Of Spanish Conquest Of Mexico," Guardian, April 13, 2016.

  Patrick Greenfield, "Story Of Cities #6: How Silver Turned Potosi Into 'The First City Of Capitalism,'" Guardian, March 21, 2016.

  "Spain Says It Has Rights To Colombian Treasure Ship," BBC News, December 8, 2015.

  "Spanish Galleon San Jose Discovered Laden With Treasure Off Colombia," DW, December 5, 2015.

  Megan Gannon, "Fort Built By Gold-Hunting Spanish Conquistadors Discovered In N.C.," NBC News, November 2, 2015.

  Jan Martinez Ahrens, "Dig At Mexican Ruins Reveals The Ritual Sacrifice Of A Spanish Expedition," El Pais, October 15, 2015.

  Alan Yuhas, "Conquistadors Sacrificed And Eaten By Aztec-Era People, Archaeologists Say," Guardian, October 10, 2015.

  Jacob Soll, "China: The New Spanish Empire?," Politico, August 27, 2015.

  "Spanish Armada Cannon Recovered From Sea Off Sligo," BBC News, July 21, 2015.

  John Gallagher, "'Agents Of Empire' By Noel Malcolm Review -- A Dazzling History Of The 16th-Century Mediterranean," Guardian, June 10, 2015.

  Jan Martinez Ahrens, "The Secret Grave Of Hernan Cortes," El Pais, June 4, 2015.

  "Erdogan Says Muslims Discovered Americas," Al Jazeera, November 15, 2014.

  Anthony Pagden, "'World Without End: The Global Empire Of Philip II' By Hugh Thomas -- Review," Guardian, August 1, 2014.

John Noble Wilford, "Fort Tells Of Spain's Early Ambitions," New York Times, July 22, 2013.

  Jago Cooper, "El Dorado: The Truth Behind The Myth," BBC Newsmagazine, January 14, 2013.

Tereixa Constenla, "The Women Who Made America," El Pais, May 29, 2012.

  "Mexico Aztec Headdress Could Go Home From Austria," BBC News, April 28, 2012.

Charles C. Mann, "When Spain Led The World," New York Times, September 16, 2011.

"Spanish Armada Ship Found Off Donegal Coast," BBC News, August 5, 2011.

J. H. Elliott, "'The Golden Age: The Spanish Empire Of Charles V' By Hugh Thomas -- Review," Guardian, January 15, 2011.

  Maev Kennedy, "Murder Most Foul: British Museum Unmasks Who Really Killed Aztec Leader," Guardian, April 8, 2009.

"Mexico Unearths Mass Grave From Spanish Conquest," CBC News, February 11, 2009.

  Paul Rose, "Magellan's Epic Voyage Retold," BBC News, November 22, 2006.

Miranda France, "Spanish Ties," Guardian, February 7, 2004.

  "Aztec Families Demand 16th-Century Pensions," BBC News, August 22, 2003.

Giles Tremlett, "Spanish Fury At 'Slur' On The Conquistadors," Guardian, March 17, 2003.

Miranda France, "Pathogens Of Empire," Guardian, February 1, 2003.

Peter Preston, "The Spanish Acquisition," Observer, December 8, 2002.

"Conquistador's Remains Found," BBC News, May 6, 2000.

James Brooke, "Conquistador Statue Stirs Hispanic Pride and Indian Rage," New York Times, February 9, 1998.

Clifford Krauss, "After 500 Years, Cortes's Girlfriend Is Not Forgiven," New York Times, March 26, 1997.

"Bones Found In Lima Verified As The Remains Of Pizarro," New York Times, April 25, 1984.


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